Confession: for the last two days, I’ve been sitting around eating turkey and pie, not getting any exercise, and watching Deadwood DVDs. So, for this Saturday’s post I knew I had to find something where I could use lots of pictures. Something that wouldn’t take much brain-power, since I lost that a few slices of apple pie a la mode ago. Something that grows out of last week’s post. Something with–corsets! Yes! That’s what I need after mashed potatoes and gravy. Elizabethan Costuming 101.
The Basic Elements:
The Smock A basic garment, worn by all classes to help protect outer clothing. There are various styles–some are cut close to the body with a low, square neck and close-fitting, ungathered sleeves. Some have puffed sleeves gathered to cuffs. Generally made of linen.
Partlet A rectangular fill-in for the open-necked bodice. If a smock with a low, square neck is worn, this can go over it. It’s cut with a straight, standing collar, and can have a small ruff attached, or have a larger ruff pinned or basted to it.
Stockings These came to just above the knee, could be made of wool or fine silk yarn, tied by a ribbon garter.
Corset (or Stays, or Pair of Bodies) The Elizabethan corset, unlike the Victorian, is not designed to squeeze the waist to Scarlett O’Hara proportions, but to smooth the line of the torso into a cone shape and flatten the bosom into a high, mounded bustline. Made of heavy boning, generally with back lacing. Extant examples are very rare; this pic is a German corset from around 1598.
Farthingales There are 2 popular varieties: Spanish and French. The Spanish is the most flattering, a straight A-line angle from waist to hem. The French, or drum farthingale, is a large, crescent-shaped pad or rigid framework worn around the waist. This was the fashion later in the 16th century.
Bum roll A crescent-shaped pad worn around the waist, supporting most of the weight of the skirt.
Drawers Not generally worn by Englishwomen. Queen Elizabeth had a few Italian pairs, but they were a shocking, racy rarity.
Underskirt (or kirtle) with a decorated forepart A plain skirt, gored or pleated to fit over hoops, bum rolls, etc. The forepart is decorated, embroidered or made from fancy fabric, and it lies flat in a gentle, downward arc. Over this goes the overskirt, attached to the bodice to form the gown. The overskirt is split up the front.
Two common styles of bodice are the square-necked variety and the doublet (with standing collar, fastened down the front center. See the portrait of Mary Queen of Scots on the right).
Sleeves detachable, could match the bodice fabric or could be contrasting (sleeves were often used as a fairly easy way to try out new looks)
Surcoats were a popular loose, coat-like garment, either worn over the bodice and skirt for warmth or on their own over the undergarments. (See the portrait of Christina, Duchess of Milan, in black).
A few good sources to read more:
Queen Elizabeth’s Wardrobe Unlocked by Janet Arnold (this book is one of the great Prides of my book collection! One of the most valuable both in terms of money and information. Also check out her two volumes of Patterns of Fashion)
The Tudor Tailor by Ninya Mikhaila
The Tailor’s Pattern Book ( reprint of a Spanish book of cutting layouts from 1589)
Dressing the Elite: Clothes in Early Modern England by Susan Vincent
Funeral Effigies in Westminster Abbey by Anthony Harvey
I hope everyone had a great holiday! I think it may be time for me to get up off the couch before I need a corset and bum roll, too…