Frivolity,  History,  Music,  Regency,  Research,  Risky Regencies

Mechanical Music in the Regency

No release date yet for The Magnificent Marquess! Possibly end of this month? Or early May? In the meantime, I’d like to share a recent, new-to-me discovery.

Do you listen to the radio all day or play music on your computer while you work? In the Regency, was there any way to listen to music that wasn’t being performed on live instruments? Actually, there was. You might have received the gift of a music box from your forever-love, or at least have been wealthy enough to own one. Or your parents’ parlour might sport an automaton of singing birds!

I was inspired to explore this topic by my recent visit to Phoenix, Arizona, where we visited the very impressive Musical Instrument Museum (affectionately known as “the MIM”). The international collection there ranges from some very early and exotic instruments to items as recent as the broken guitar Adam Levine threw into the air during a Maroon Five concert. Many of the instruments are gorgeously decorated works of art beyond their artistic function. But I digress.

When I’m in museums I admit I tend to focus on anything that is from our period (obsessed much?). At the MIM I thoroughly enjoyed seeing guitars and pianofortes that were played by upper class women and made during the Regency. I was delighted to discover a video clip from Pride & Prejudice used to illustrate the significant social role of such musical performance.   But I already knew about those things. My favorite discovery was some early music boxes in the “mechanical music” room. I had never thought about when those first became available. Did you know that musical snuff boxes were the forerunners of the modern music box?

As with most inventions, earlier developments led to a needed breakthrough in technology. For music boxes, those steps included the 14th or 15th century creation of mechanisms for playing carillons in bell towers,  and the realization by German clockmakers that small bells and the rotating cylinder could be combined with clockworks to produce chiming or musical clocks. In the17th century the first fully automated musical clock was created in Germany, and the first “repeater” pocket watch was created in England.

Chiming English mantel clock

I’m not going to give the whole history with dates and names in this blogpost (especially since sources don’t all agree), but in the 18th century watches and snuffboxes were being made that played tunes using a tiny pinned cylinder or disc and bells.

The generally accepted big change happened in 1796 when Swiss watchmaker Antoine Favre-Salomon (1734–1820) — some sources name him as Louis Favre –replaced the tiny bells with a small, resonating steel “comb” tuned by varying the lengths of the “teeth”.  This snuff-box music box showing the working cylinder and comb is in the MIM in Phoenix.

Favre’s invention not only saved space but also allowed more complex sounds. In 1800 another Swiss watchmaker, Isaac Daniel Piguet, used a pinned disc with radially arranged steel teeth. Watchmakers were the first to produce music boxes. But by 1811 the first specialized factory for making music boxes was established in Saint-Croix, Switzerland, and by 1815, 10% of Swiss exports were music boxes. A new fad for the wealthy was born!

There’s a story that Beethoven was so charmed by a music box that he composed a piece especially for the music box maker.  Improvements soon included adding more teeth to the comb, methods to shift the cylinder or disc position to play more than one tune, and experimenting with different types of wood to improve music box resonance. Here is a picture from the MIM of a piano-shaped music box c. 1835 that was also a lady’s sewing box.   Music boxes became more and more elaborate over the course of the 19th century, and also less costly. The music box industry in Europe and America eventually employed more than 100,000 people. The invention of the player piano and then the phonograph put most of the makers out of business by the early 20th century.

Let me not forget the singing birds! Those have a long history, too, but the first mechanical birds that “sang” are generally credited to the Jaquet-Droz brothers, clock and automaton makers from La Chaux-de-Fonds, in 1780. The same sort of mechanism as music boxes provided their sounds. Singing bird automatons were a fad for the parents or grandparents of our Regency characters, so there is no reason why a set might not still be lurking in a parlour, or parked in the attics of the family home. Automatons could be the topic of another entire post, a separate fascinating rabbit hole!

Do you love music boxes? Do you own any, or did you as a child? Did you know they first gained popularity during the Regency? I didn’t, but many thanks to the MIM in Phoenix for pointing me to that discovery!





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Elena Greene
5 years ago

Cool post, Gail! I had one of those little music boxes with a little ballerina inside when I was little–have no idea what happened to it. The first time I knew about anything like that in the Regency was in a Georgette Heyer (April Lady) in which the heroine buys her younger sisters a ‘Singing-bird, with box embellished turquoise blue enamelled panels’. So I was aware such things existed. It sounds really pretty–now I want one. 🙂

Gail Eastwood
5 years ago
Reply to  Elena Greene

LOL, Elena! It does sound pretty. Heyer’s description is so detailed, I wonder if she based it on a museum specimen she had seen! I thought I had a photo of one of the singing birds at the MIM but I don’t –sadly I think that may have been just when my camera batteries died. I know you love museums, and music. if you ever get to Phoenix I highly recommend the MIM!

Donna Hatch Romance Author

I have always been entranced with music boxes from my early childhood. Thanks for the lovely post. I can’t believe I never visited the MIM when I lived in the Phoenix area. I can see that is something I must do the next time I visit. I owned a few as a child, most of which later broke. I have two now, both of which my husband gave me as gifts, that I adore! One is a jewelry box with a hand-painted carousel horse on the top of the lid, and the other is a miniature replica of a Thomas Kincaid painting. So lovely! Thank you for the wonderful post!

Gail Eastwood
5 years ago

Hi Donna! Thanks for popping in to visit here! Your music boxes both sound lovely –heh, heh, I bet they also “sound” lovely when they play, LOL. So glad you enjoyed the post. I love finding out new things (and sharing them)!! You def have to check out the MIM next time you are in Phoenix –allow a whole day for it, at the least. It’s huge and fascinating.

ki pha
ki pha
5 years ago

Oh! Now I need to go visit the MIM . This definitely makes for a great story, surprising we don’t see much of the music box in our Regency reading though.

Gail Eastwood
5 years ago
Reply to  ki pha

ki pha, I was surprised, too, once I discovered this information! But maybe I’m not the only author who didn’t know about it. I’m going to have to put a Swiss music box in a story now!! 🙂

5 years ago

Lovely post! I’ve loved “music box music” since I was little and have owned a few over the years (starting with the ballerina jewelry box, of course). Another favorite was my Mom’s record album of Christmas music from the old Music Wonder House in Maine!

Gail Eastwood
5 years ago
Reply to  Kristen

Kristen, I only just learned about the Music Wonder House in Maine –so very sad it is gone now!! I wish I had known about it during the years it was open. 🙁 That is very cool that they made a record of music from the music machines in their collection, and kind of amazing that they had enough that were specifically Christmas!!

Sandra Schwab
5 years ago

I love music boxes as well as their giant cousins, the fairground organs. The small town in the Black Forest where my family lived during my primary school years used to be world-renowned for its street organs and fairground organs in the 19th century.

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